Holocene climate variability and cultural changes

In nature, change is constant. What thousands of years ago used to be a green environment, providing a habitat for both wildlife and humans, is today a desert environment – one of the most hostile areas on earth for life – the Sahara desert. As the Sahara turned drier and drier thousands of years ago, the inhabitants had to move closer to the water sources for survival, many of them migrating to the River Nile. Unfortunately the Nile was not a stable system either; the extreme variations in the droughts and floods of the Nile strongly affected the life of people dependent on its water…  Yletyinen, 2009.

Research in my Master’s Thesis suggests that in Egypt, Holocene climatic changes can be considered a driver for the birth of African pastoralism in circa 5300 BC, for the patterns of the movement of the people in the 5th millennium BC, and for the fall of the Old Kingdom (at least partially caused by the low Nile floods).

Read here.


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